|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 106-107
Relation between hematological derangements and disease outcomes in children with COVID-19 are likely indirect
Department of Clinical Hematology, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
|Date of Submission||18-Jan-2021|
|Date of Decision||30-Jan-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||30-Jan-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||22-Mar-2021|
Dr. Suvir Singh
Department of Clinical Haematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana - 141 001, Punjab
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Singh S. Relation between hematological derangements and disease outcomes in children with COVID-19 are likely indirect. Indian J Med Spec 2021;12:106-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Singh S. Relation between hematological derangements and disease outcomes in children with COVID-19 are likely indirect. Indian J Med Spec [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Jan 29];12:106-7. Available from: http://www.ijms.in/text.asp?2021/12/2/106/311698
Margekar et al. provide a succinct review of hematological changes in children with COVID-19 and correctly assert that the link between hematological manifestations and outcomes in children is not well defined. We add few findings from literature to support this assertion. In adults, hematologic parameters have a strong association with outcomes, but several differences indicate that this association in children may not be direct. Children are shown to share many hematological derangements in COVID-19 similar to adults but have several differences in disease pathogenesis.
Several findings from literature affirm that the relation between hematologic derangements and disease outcomes in children is not linear, and may not allow us to correctly predict disease outcomes.
The incidence of severe lung disease in children has been low despite the presence of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. In addition, children with COVID-19 have been described to present with a multisystem inflammatory state (MIS-C), that manifests after primary infection and shares many hematologic disturbances seen in adults. The occurrence of MIS-C after a delay of few weeks from primary infection illustrates the role played by host immune responses and not primary infection per se. Both these facts affirm that final disease manifestations with COVID-19 are a result of differential immune responses in children despite sharing underlying hematologic abnormalities with adults.
Many reasons for the same are being unraveled. For instance, pediatric patients demonstrate markedly different antibody responses to SARS-CoV2 compared to adults. Children also have a markedly high serum concentration of alpha-2-macroglobulin, which plays a role in inhibiting the function of thrombin. This has the ability to blunt downstream inflammatory and prothrombotic responses, reducing disease severity and end-organ damage., MIS-C also shares many pathogenic components with adult COVID-19, including endothelial activation and NETosis, but has completely different manifestations and outcomes, again indicating the role of host responses.
The significance of hematologic parameters in children is still an evolving premise and likely not a direct association like that seen in adults. Continuing accrual of data will provide more insights into this association and help identify clinically relevant parameters.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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