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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 188-193

COVID-19 vaccines: A ray of hope


1 Department of Clinical Research, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Cardiology, National Heart Institute, East of Kailash, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shridhar Dwivedi
B-107, Sagar Apartment, Sector-62, Noida - 201 304, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/injms.injms_86_21

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Coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a dreaded pandemic which is a threat to the entire world. It all began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread over the world. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is an enveloped virus single-stranded, positive-sensed ribonucleic acid virus that enters the host cell lungs via endocytosis or membrane fusion utilizing the ACE-2 receptor. The virus particles release and replicate into new progenies, which cause cytokine storm in some cases by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators into the lungs. It dominantly manifests as SARS-CoV-2 and eventually involves all systems of human body. As of July 15, 2021, approximately 189 million COVID-19-infected cases have been reported worldwide, with over 4 million individuals dying as a result. In India, so far there are approximately 31 million infected cases and 4 lakhs human lives have been lost. Various antivirals, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and other adjuvant therapies were being experimentally employed for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. Many pharmaceutical companies have worked on COVID-19 vaccinations to stop the virus progression and transmission. In several countries, including India, the United States, and Russia, the COVID-19 vaccine has already been approved for human use. India has been able to produce two vaccines, namely Covaxin and Covishield, and launches a massive vaccination drive for people above 18 years adults. Till now, approximately 304 million subjects have been partially vaccinated and 73 million subjects are fully vaccinated. Various other COVID-19 vaccines are in Phase 3 of clinical development. Vaccines against COVID are a major tool against the progression and prevention of COVID-19.


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