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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 82-86

Is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease different in females as compared to males?

Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rita Vijaykumar Bothara
Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/injms.injms_118_21

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Background: Recent years have witnessed a major shift in the sex profile of the chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). In India, while smoking remains a significant risk factor, COPD due to nonsmoking causes (like biomass exposure) accounts for 30%–50% of all COPD cases. There is a lack of studies on characteristics of women with COPD exposed to biomass smoke and the degree to which they differ from COPD in men from the Indian context. Aim: The aim was to study clinical profile, risk factors, and severity of COPD in females and compare the same with COPD in males. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of COPD were divided into two groups – 50 Females and 50 males and were analyzed further for clinical profile and were graded as per the GOLD criteria and BODE index. Results: The mean age of presentation in females was 62 years. Biomass smoke exposure was the most common risk factor in females and that in males was smoking. Females had more severe dyspnea as compared to males (P = 0.022). There was a significant statistical difference in the performance of 6-min walk test (P = 0.005) and number of exacerbations in the past year in females (mean 4.5) and males (mean 3.58) (P = 0.034). Majority of female patients belonged to GOLD Groups B and D. Mean BODE index was 4.98 in females and 4.24 in males, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.014). Conclusion: There are gender-related differences in COPD risk, progression, and outcomes. Females have more symptoms, more severe obstruction, more number of exacerbations, and more functional disability as compared to males.

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